Getting and cleaning data

One can admit that term Data Science consist of 2 words: “Data” and “Science”. It’s not a coincidence, thus in this part we will focus on the first part - “Data”.

In the present times we can find data literally everywhere: from text messages on our phones to whether predictions on TV in different forms and presentations (video, audio, text, images, etc…). Data can be divided into two subcategories shown below.

Comparison of structured and unstructured data :
Structured and unstructured data

Tidy Data

Up to 80% of the time devoted to data analysis is spent on data cleaning and data preparation. And here for the rescue comes a term Tidy Data. Idea behind tidy data is taken from relational databases and database normalization from computer science. Beside rows and columns in tables, additional point should be considered:
  • The data is a collection of values of a given type

  • Every value belongs to a variable

  • Every variable belongs to an observation

  • Observations are variables for a unit (like an object or an event).

The objective of tidy data is to map the meaning of the data (semantics) onto the structure of the data.
However, many real world data sets violate the principle of tidy data. Here is 5 common problems:
  • Column headers are values, not variable names

  • Multiple variables are stored in one column

  • Variables are stored in both rows and columns

  • Multiple types of observational units are stored in the same table

  • A single observational unit is stored in multiple tables

It is only after data is tidy that it is useful for data analysis.
Other areas outside of tidy data include parsing variable types (dates and numbers), dealing with missing values, characters encoding, typos and outliers.

Description of assignment

In the first assignment we will work through the process of dates parsing using the dataset from kaggle. Basically there are 2 datasets containing issues concerning dates columns and in order to produce meaningful results and parse the data, additional transformations (like converting strings to data) should be done. The one will learn how to work with data frames and visualize the data to check if applied functions are correct. In terms of example, one dataset is already processed, and yet other one is expected to be processed by students.

Note

Some information is taken from this article.

Assignment 1